### Category "IDL"

Harris Geospatial1 released IDL 8.5.1 yesterday. The release notes show a few nice additions, appropriate to a patch release version: a new FILE_MODTIME, an ::IsFoldCase method for some of the container classes, routines for handling VGroup attributes in HDF4 files, IDLnetURL::URLEncode/IDLnetURL::URLDecode methods, writing a PNG to a buffer instead of a file, and an update to the HDF4 library.

1. Exelis VIS changed their name yesterday too.

I migrated my libraries to git, and GitHub, from Subversion over eight and a half years ago. While there is a bit of a learning curve to git, it is possible to handle basic operations fairly easily. The following is an overview of the basic features of git with some comparisons to Subversion. This basic overview completely omits many features of git; for more information check out the git docs.

Continue reading “git basics.”

Great essay about climate change and what you can do about it by Bret Victor:

This is aimed at people in the tech industry, and is more about what you can do with your career than at a hackathon. I’m not going to discuss policy and regulation, although they’re no less important than technological innovation. A good way to think about it, via Saul Griffith, is that it’s the role of technologists to create options for policy-makers.

Also fascinating is the presentation of his argument and the surrounding facts, particularly the interactive “model-driven debate” text in the Media section. He imagines (and has implemented in the article) news articles with input values that the reader can modify to explore different scenarios and output values the reader can click to find an explanation of how they were calculated. Wow!

I wrote an overview almost eight years ago about IDL’s basic routines to visualize a vector field. Not much has changed since then. This paper by Laidlaw, et al, mentioned at the end of my overview, outlines six common visualization techniques and evaluates them on the speed and accuracy of doing common tasks with them.

I think it would be great to have two of the better performing techniques: OSTR (image-guided streamlines, integral curves) and LIC (line-integral convolution) techniques. Between the two of them, they have the best or nearly the best performance in every category. An example OSTR visualization is shown below:

I have tackled LIC and have code to produce images from vector fields in my library.

While interactive graphics can be created in IDL, you are currently limited to distributing an IDL application to provide them to others. It would be useful to be able to create interactive web graphics from IDL — particularly if it was just a click or ->save call from function graphics.

Bokeh is a library for Python capable of generating Javascript to display interactive visualizations. Check out its gallery for examples. Bokeh has bindings for other languages; all that is required for the language is to output the correct JSON to the Javascript part of Bokeh. Bokeh is BSD licensed so it could be used in a commercial product like IDL.

Of course, Bokeh can be used via the Python bridge right now, but that adds an additional burden to its use.

IDL already contains syntax for passing arbitrary (and perhaps unknown beforehand) keywords to a routine using the _EXTRA and _REF_EXTRA keywords, depending on whether you are passing a variable back to the caller through the keyword. For example, you can do something like this:

pro my_wrapper_routine, _extra=e
my_routine, _extra=e
end


Now, MY_WRAPPER_ROUTINE passes all the keywords that MY_ROUTINE accepts along to it (ignoring any others, use _STRICT_EXTRA on the MY_ROUTINE call to generate an error if an unknown keyword is passed in).

It would be useful to have a similar mechanism for positional parameters, making it possible to write routines in IDL which accept an arbitrary number of keywords or pass along parameters to another routine. For example, passing all parameters after the first two to another routine and printing the first “extra” parameter with the new library routine GET_PARAM:

pro my_wrapper_routine, a, b, _extra
my_routine, _extra
print, get_param(_extra, 0)
end


What exactly would the _extra variable be? I’m not sure. Maybe it isn’t even needed in the GET_PARAM call, but it certainly is needed in the MY_ROUTINE call. Python handles this through tuples and the special * notation, maybe IDL can use structures and a bit of new notation?

But I would certainly like to get rid of code like the following:

case n_params() of
0: _sql_query = ''
1: _sql_query = sql_query
2: _sql_query = string(arg1, format='(%"' + sql_query + '")')
3: _sql_query = string(arg1, arg2, format='(%"' + sql_query + '")')
4: _sql_query = string(arg1, arg2, arg3, format='(%"' + sql_query + '")')


IDL has several places where callback functions are used to provide a mechanism for IDL library routines to call user-defined functions. For example, in curve fitting routines such as CURVEFIT the callback function allows the user to define custom functions that are evaluated by the fitting routine.

For many callbacks, this interface is perfectly adequate. But for some cases, the callback routine requires some data that is not passed to it in the interface defined by the calling routine. In this case, it is typical for the callback routine to use a technique like common blocks to access the data. But even Fortran recognizes the problems with common blocks; surely there must be a better way to do this in 2015.

IDL 8.5 provides just such a mechanism — function pointers. Objects which inherit from IDL_Object and define an _overloadFunction method can be called like a function. This would allow passing a function pointer with the appropriate user-define data as a callback function. A reference to object could be kept and the data could be modified as needed.

This would provide a much nicer interface in a wide variety of applications which use a callback routine: numeric routines such as for curve fitting; several areas in widget programming such as XMANAGER itself, creating a compound widget, and WIDGET_TREE drag and drop; and some networking classes such as IDLnetURL and IDLnetOGCW[CM]S.

The change should not be difficult, just a check for a string versus and object passed as the callback. Something like:

function mg_call_callback, callback, arg1, arg2, _extra=e
compile_opt stricter

if (size(callback, /type) eq 11) then begin
return, callback(arg1, arg2, _extra=e)
endif else begin
return, call_function(callback, arg1, arg2, _extra=e)
endelse
end


Of course, this is complicated by the fact that the above routine assumes that there are two positional parameters (though it can handle any keywords), but I will save that for another wish.

I agree. The media’s need for interesting and entertaining news means that stories such as “It’s a Pretty Safe Time for Most” or “Things are Slightly Better Than Last Year” are not written or at least not emphasized. We should build context through data.

The ternary operator is a handy syntax for creating a result based on a (scalar) condition that is evaluated for truth. For example, I frequently use it to set a default value for an input variable, like the following that uses a default value of 5.0 if x is not present:

_x = n_elements(x) eq 0L ? 5.0 : x


Without the syntax, you would need an if statement:

if (n_elements(x) eq 0L) then _x = 5.0 else _x = x


(Or, in this case, a special purpose routine like default.) But, besides being a bit longer, the if statement hides the possibility that you might not assign to _x in both cases of the if statement, whereas it is clear in the ternary statement that _x is going to receive a value in any case.

The ternary statement is even more useful because it can be chained with other statements. For example,

results[f] = day + (year eq currentYear $? string(time, format='(A6)')$
: string(year, format='(I6)'))


Without the ternary operator, this would require a new local variable and would be twice as long:

if (year eq currentYear) then begin
yeartime = string(time, format='(A6)')
endif else begin
yeartime = string(year, format='(I6)')
endelse
result[f] = day + yeartime


One of the main limitations to the ternary operator is that, like an if statement, the condition must be evaluated to a scalar truth value. I would like to extend the ternary operator to arrays. Let’s see how it would work.

First, let’s create some arrays to use in the examples:

IDL> x = findgen(5)
IDL> y = 2 * findgen(5)
IDL> z = lindgen(5) mod 2
IDL> print, x
0.00000      1.00000      2.00000      3.00000      4.00000
IDL> print, y
0.00000      2.00000      4.00000      6.00000      8.00000
IDL> print, z
0           1           0           1           0


Then, my proposal would be for the following lines to work:

IDL> print, z ? x : y
0.00000      1.00000      4.00000      3.00000      8.00000


One, or both, of the operators could be a scalar:

IDL> print, z ? 1.0 : y
0.00000      1.00000      4.00000      1.00000      8.00000
IDL> print, z ? 1.0 : 2.0
2.00000      1.00000      2.00000      1.00000      2.00000


Now, of course, this can be done already, but it takes a lot more code. For example, the first case expands from one line to:

IDL> result = fltarr(5)
IDL> ind = where(z, count, complement=not_ind, ncomplement=not_count)
IDL> if (count gt 0L) then result[ind] = x[ind]
IDL> if (not_count gt 0L) then result[not_ind] = y[not_ind]
IDL> print, result
0.00000      1.00000      4.00000      3.00000      8.00000


IDL already has rules for type promotion if an operation has operands of two differing types; those could be used here to determine the type of the result since the elements of both value operands would be intermixed in a single array.

There are quite a few new features in IDL 8.5 that I have not covered in previous articles. Here is a summary list:

• There is now a DIALOG_COLORPICKER which you can present to users to choose a color:

• Analogous to the command line utility with the same name, IDL 8.5 adds a WGET routine to retrieve the contents of a URL:

IDL> wget('http://www.google.com/index.html', filename='google.html')

• In function graphics, the BARPLOT, ELLIPSE, and POLYGON routines now support fill patterns. The new keywords PATTERN_BITMAP, PATTERN_ORIENTATION, PATTERN_SPACING, and PATTERN_THICK specify the fill pattern.

• Before IDL 8.5, it was possible to have hashes of hashes of hashes, etc., but it was necessary to manually create each level of the hashes. Elements of a hash of a hash were accessed via h['a', 'b'], which was shorthand for (h['a'])['b']. Now it is possible to have IDL automatically create the necessary levels of the hash during a hash assignment:

IDL> h = hash()
IDL> h['a', 'b', 'c'] = 5
IDL> h
{
"a": {
"b": {
"c": 5
}
}
}

• Server-side sockets actually have been present in IDL for awhile, but they are now documented.

• #### GPULib

GPULib enables IDL developers to access the high-performance capabilities of modern NVIDIA graphics cards without knowledge of CUDA programming.

TaskDL is a task-farming solution for IDL designed for problems with loosely-coupled, parallel applications where no communication between nodes of a cluster is required.

#### mpiDL

mpiDL is a library of IDL bindings for Message Passing Interface (MPI) used for tightly-coupled parallel applications.

#### Remote Data Toolkit

The Remote Data Toolkit is a library of IDL routines allowing for easy access to various scientific data in formats such as OPeNDAP, HDF 5, and netCDF.

• #### Modern IDL

Modern IDL offers IDL programmers one place to look, for beginners and advanced users alike. This book also contains: a thorough tutorial on the core topics of IDL; a comprehensive introduction to the object graphics system; common problems and gotchas with many examples; advanced topics not normally found are discussed throughout the book: regular expressions, object graphics, advanced widget programming, performance, object-oriented programming, etc.

• #### IDLdoc

IDLdoc is an open source utility for generating documentation from IDL source code and specially formatted comments.

#### mgunit

mgunit is an open source unit testing framework for IDL.

#### rIDL

rIDL is an open source IDL command line replacement.

#### mglib

mglib is an open source library of IDL routines in areas of visualization, application development, command line utilities, analysis, data access, etc.